Chlamydia is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person, including sexual intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. Transmission of the bacteria Chlamydia can also happen through vaginal delivery (from the infected woman to the newborn baby).
Chlamydia trachomatis causes urogenital infection, and in men is manifested as nongonococcal urethritis and in women as cervicitis. It belongs to the most widespread sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among the general population. About 75% of infected women and 50% of infected men have no symptoms, so most of the infections remain unknown and untreated, which favors the uncontrolled spread of the disease.
Symptoms appear after an incubation period which lasts from one to three weeks, and they are: in men, symptoms occur soon after infection - yellowish secretion, i.e. serous and mucous secretion from the urethra, purulent discharge from the penis, burning during urination, pain during intercourse, vaginal bleeding between periods and after sexual intercourse in women. However, even in 50% of women the infection may have no symptoms.
If untreated, the disease in women is often accompanied by complications in terms of acute salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes) and chronic inflammatory diseases of the pelvis with the consequent blockage of the fallopian tubes and infertility with increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. In pregnant women chlamydial infection can lead to premature birth, and in newborn to neonatal pneumonia (lung inflammation) and conjunctivitis.
In men, the most common complication is epididymitis (inflammation of the seminal ducts), Reiter's syndrome, etc.
The treatment is quite simple and is carried out simultaneously in both partners, with antibiotics from the group of tetracycline, macrolides and some other contemporary medicines. In most cases, doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for seven days) or azithromycin (single dose of 1 g) are administered, and erythromycin is usually used during pregnancy.
When receiving treatment, the diseased persons should temporarily refrain from sexual relations, since they are still contagious and can infect their partner or partners, who then again can return the infection.
When you start the prescribed treatment, follow the instructions literally and make sure that you carry it out until the end. Do not stop taking medication just because the symptoms disappeared, but be consistent and take the whole therapy, otherwise chlamydia will return.