Cold and flu
The common cold is an infection of upper respiratory system caused by different viruses. In winter, the common cold occurs more often, because the viruses evolve at colder temperatures, we spend more time in closed and poorly ventilated areas, and we have more frequent contact with affected people, which favors the spread of infection. Colds and flu are different diseases; they are caused by different types of viruses and have different clinical picture, or symptoms. Flu is caused by influenza virus. There are several types of influenza occurring in the period from October to April. Look for a medicines for flue treatment at our pharmacy.
Lowering the fever
Fever is a sign of disease and occurs due to activation of the immune system. The normal range of body temperature measured under the armpit (axillary is from 36 ° C to 37 ° C, or 36.5 ° C to 37.5 ° C measured rectally (in the colon).
- The temperature should be first reduced with cold wraps and showering with warm water.
- Taking medicines to treat fever (acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen or ibuprofen), at a dose adapted to age, is recommended for adults who have a temperature over 38 ° C, and young children with temperature over 37.5 ° C. Small children should not take acetylsalicylic acid.
- It is important to take more fluids, preferably water or warm and mild herbal tea.
Rhinitis or inflammation of the lining of the nose
Inflammation of the lining of the nose, rhinitis, or hay fever, is caused by irritation of mucous membrane, in which case we experience runny nose due to increased secretion of watery mucus, nasal congestion due to mucus which becomes slimy and thick and swollen mucous membrane, sneezing and itching due to stimulation of mucous membrane and the temporary loss of sense of smell.
The disease can sometimes complicate due to the spread of the virus to the sinuses or subsequent infection, creating a sinus infection, or sinusitis. Spread of the inflammation to the ear results in ear infections, or otitis media, which is very common in young children.
In case of rhinitis nasal irrigation with physiological solution or salt water can be useful, which reduces inflammation, eases blowing the nose and accelerates the natural recovery of the mucosa.
Medicines called decongestants reduce the swelling of nasal mucosa, and thus reduce leakage and blockage. They can be applied in the form of drops and nasal sprays, and less frequently in the form of tablets. Special nose ointment that relieves irritation of the skin and mucous membranes of the nose can also help in the treatment of rhinitis.
|Health experts do not recommend applying decongestant longer than five days, so as not to develop side effects or pronounced dryness of mucous membranes and nasal congestion. It should be kept in mind that the strength and dose of decongestant depend on the patient's age.
Treatment of sore throat
Symptoms of sore throat are pain, burning or scratchy throat, difficulty swallowing, dry mucous membranes of the throat, hoarseness or loss of voice. Sore throat is usually caused by viruses which cause the common cold, and bacterial infections of the throat are rare.
- Sore throat caused by colds is treated with antiseptics and disinfectants for the throat in the form of pastilles, mouth spray or solution for gargling, because they calm the inflammation and prevent subsequent infection.
- Painkillers are often already added to pastilles and sprays, but if the pain is stronger, additional painkillers can be taken: paracetamol, acetylsalicylic acid or ibuprofen.
- Drink plenty of fluids, which moisturize and wash irritated mucous membranes of the throat.
- Take a tablespoon of honey and dissolve it in the mouth, because honey has an antiseptic effect, and slow dissolution stimulates increased secretion of saliva, which coats the throat and relieves the symptoms.
Relieving the cough
Cough, as well as fever, is not a disease, but only symptom due to irritation of the respiratory tract. We distinguish stimulatory or dry cough and productive or wet cough. In colds the most common is wet cough due to discharge from the nose.
- wet cough is treated with medicines in the form of tablets, syrup or solution, which are called secretolytica, as they dilute the thick mucus accumulated in the bronchi and facilitate expectoration.
- Traditional herbal syrups which act as secretolytica contain extract of plantain, primrose and thyme.
- Dry cough is relieved with medicines called antitussives, and with traditional herbal syrups which contain extract of Icelandic lichen or mucus of marshmallow.
Strong immunity is the best ally in the fight against cold, and to empower it, you should raise the intake of vitamin B and C, and zinc and beta-glucans.
Strong immunity and hygiene prevent the occurrence of colds
- Eat right, because proper diet is the foundation of a strong immunity because it provides the necessary amount of vitamins, minerals and probiotics.
- Time spent in fresh air, adequate rest and sleep, and regular exercise strengthens the immune system.
- To boost immunity increased intake of vitamin B and C, and zinc and beta-glucan is recommended.
- Pay attention to hygiene - regular hand washing and avoiding touching the nose, lips and cheeks with your hands will reduce the possibility of infection by viruses, as well as the regular ventilation of rooms where you stay.
When to seek medical help?
- If you suddenly experience symptoms such as extremely severe sore throat accompanied by high temperature, fever and malaise.
- If the temperature is above 38 ° C and it does not drop after taking medicine to lower the temperature or if it lasts longer than three days.
- If the swallowing is significantly more difficult (difficult swallowing of water).
- If breathing is difficult or if it produces wheezing.
- If you experience sinus pain (pain above the eyes or the inside of the cheek near the nose, particularly when bending the head).
- If the sore throat lasts longer than seven days despite taking an antiseptic for the throat.
- If the cough lasts for more than ten days despite taking cough medicine.